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How to Become a Cardiologist in 2023

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by Mohamed Ahmed in Residency

Do you want to know how to become a cardiologist? Are you interested in a medical career that provides not only patient care but also offers unique opportunities for medical research and a chance to be on the cutting edge of modern medicine?

If so, a cardiologist career may be the perfect choice for you. In this blog post, I will explain what a cardiologist does and how to become one, even if you’re only in high school.

Summary:

  • Rather than performing surgeries, cardiologists nonsurgically diagnose and treat diseases of the heart.
  • Cardiology is a sub-specialty of internal medicine. Internal medicine residency training is three years, in addition to 3 more years in a cardiology fellowship.
  • Going to a top medical school may help a bit. However, how you do on your USMLEs (Board) scores and in your med school class ranking will matter more.
  • Non-PhD degrees like MBAs and MPHs appear to have no advantage to becoming a cardiologist.

Table of Contents

What Are Cardiologists?

Cardiologists specialize in diagnosing and treating heart and blood vessel conditions, making them an essential part of the early detection, prevention, and treatment of the leading cause of death worldwide.

Cardiologists are responsible for the non-invasive treatment of cardiovascular diseases including lifestyle modification, prescribing medication, and post-surgery follow-up. They evaluate patients’ medical histories and examine them to asses their current health status. They may also order and interpret tests to determine how well the heart is functioning, which aids them in choosing the best treatment.

Cardiology is not a surgical specialty, but it is unique in that some invasive tests are part of a cardiologist’s job such as coronary angiography, catheterization, or electrophysiology study which requires outstanding hand-eye coordination.

Do Cardiologists Perform Surgery?

Cardiologist vs. Cardiothoracic Surgeon: What’s the Difference?

Cardiologists diagnose and treat diseases of the heart, perform a minimally invasive procedures, and provide long-term care for patients.

Cardiac surgeons, on the other hand, perform complicated surgical procedures on the advice of cardiologists.

How Long Does It Take To Become a Cardiologist?

Becoming a cardiologist is no easy feat and requires considerable time and energy. But if you’re up to the challenge, the results can be gratifying. A cardiologist often makes critical decisions where someone’s life is on the line, making the requirements to become a cardiologist extremely high.

At a minimum, it takes a minimum of 14 years after high school to become a cardiologist. That includes four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, three years of internal medicine residency, and three years of cardiology fellowship. Along the way, you’ll have to take various standardized exams, including the SAT, the MCAT, and the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK.

Undergraduate (4 Years)

The first step to becoming a cardiologist is entering and completing an undergraduate program. This means taking the SATs and doing well enough to be accepted into a college or university. Once accepted into an undergraduate program, you’ll have to complete a minimum of four years of academic coursework. This includes classes in biology, chemistry, physics, English, and other general education courses.

Medical School (4 Years)

The next step is to take the MCAT, a standardized exam that measures your knowledge and skills in biology, chemistry, physics, and psychology. You’ll need to score well on the MCAT for med school acceptance.

You’ll have to complete four years of academic and clinical training during medical school. This includes classes in anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and other medical topics. You’ll also have to complete clinical rotations at hospitals and other healthcare facilities to gain hands-on experience.

Internal Medicine Residency (3 Years)

Cardiology is a sub-specialty of internal medicine, so you need to do an internal medicine residency in order to become a cardiologist. After you’ve completed medical school, you’ll have to match into an internal medicine residency. To do this, you’ll have to take the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK exams. These exams measure your knowledge and skills in the areas of clinical medicine. Once you’ve passed these exams, you’ll be eligible to apply for residency.

Once you’ve matched into an internal medicine residency, you’ll have to complete three years of clinical training to become qualified. During this training period and before specializing in cardiovascular diseases, you’ll learn how to evaluate and manage several types of general medical conditions.

After Internal Medicine Residency: Board Certification

Cardiologists should be board certified by the American Board of Internal medicine in both internal medicine and then in the cardiology subspecialty. Upon completing your internal medicine residency, you’ll be eligible to take the Internal Medicine Board Exam to become a board-certified internist which is required for you to later become a board-certified cardiologist.

Cardiology Fellowship (3 years)

After completing your internal medicine residency, you must complete a cardiology fellowship for another three years. During this time, you’ll learn to prevent, diagnose, treat, and manage a wide range of cardiac conditions. You will gain an in-depth understanding of the field of cardiology in addition to performing cardiac procedures and clinical research. Upon completing your cardiology, you’ll be eligible to take the Internal Medicine Board Exam in cardiology to become a board-certified cardiologist.

Subspecialty Fellowships for Cardiologists (optional)

-Heart Failure Fellowship (1 year)
-Electrophysiology Fellowship (1-2 years)
-Interventional Cardiology (1-2 years)

Becoming a cardiologist takes a minimum of 14 years after high school. It’s a long and arduous process, but if you’re dedicated and passionate about becoming a cardiologist, the rewards are worth it.

How Competitive is it to Become a Cardiologist?

Internal medicine is one of the less competitive specialties in matching into a residency program. Each year, thousands of hopeful medical school graduates apply for a limited number of positions in their preferred specialty. The Match system, run by the National Resident Match Program (NRMP), pairs applicants with training programs based on their preferences.

But how competitive is internal medicine in the US? To answer this question, it is important to look at the unmatched rates of US seniors by specialty. The unmatched rate refers to the percentage of US seniors who applied for a residency program in that specialty but did not get matched. It considers each applicant’s first-choice specialty. So, if you applied to a different specialty as a “backup” but didn’t match because you matched in your first choice, this wouldn’t be included. To learn more about how to maximize your chances at a dream residency through “The Match,” see this article.

In the 2022 Match, graduating US medical school seniors attending MD schools had a 2% unmatched rate to internal medicine. This makes it one of the less competitive specialties, unlike specialties like plastic surgery (unmatched % 37.3%), orthopedic surgery (34.2%), or otolaryngology (sometimes called “ENT” for ear-nose-throat; 30.8%).

For more on the competitiveness of internal medicine relative to other medical specialties, see this article.

Cardiologist Annual Compensation

One stereotype of cardiologists is that they make a lot of money. Cardiologists have an average annual salary of $490,000. However, this can vary dramatically based on practice setting, specialty training, and experience level.

Cardiologist Annual Salary

Cardiologists make $490,000 per year on average

How Much Do Cardiologists Make an Hour?

You may also be wondering, how much do cardiologists make per hour? And how is the balance between time inside vs. outside the hospital for the specialty?

While there aren’t perfect data, we’ve compiled data re: hours/weeks worked and annual salary for various specialties, including cardiology.

Here are the data:

Average Annual SalaryAverage Hourly SalaryOn-Call ScheduleHours/WeekAvg Weeks Worked/Year
Allergy/Immunology$298,000.00$125.9349.3
Anesthesiology$405,000.00$146.24Medium6145.4
Cardiology$490,000.00$177.5457.5
Critical Care$369,000.00$114.9166.9
Dermatology$438,000.00$211.11Low45.445.7
Diagnostic Radiology$437,000.00$170.46Low5844.2
Emergency Medicine$373,000.00$169.59Medium46.447.4
Endocrinology$257,000.00$110.40Medium48.5
Family Medicine$255,000.00$101.85Medium52.647.6
Gastroenterology$453,000.00$168.53Medium5647.7
General Surgery$402,000.00$141.88High59.447.7
Infectious Diseases$260,000.00$101.44High53.4
Internal Medicine$264,000.00$100.81Medium54.947.7
Interventional Radiology$437,000.00
Nephrology$329,000.00$122.40Medium56
Neurological Surgery (Assistant Prof. Median)$600,500.00$214.96Medium58.2
Neurology$301,000.00$129.09Medium50.845.9
Obstetrics and Gynecology$336,000.00$123.26Medium5847
Oncology$411,000.00$143.43Low59.7
Opthalmology$417,000.00$173.97Medium5147
Orthopaedic Surgery$557,000.00$207.91Medium5747
Otolaryngology$469,000.00$184.01High53.148
Pathology$334,000.00$147.74Low47.1
Pediatrics$244,000.00$108.16Medium4748
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation$322,000.00$147.7645.4
Plastic Surgery$576,000.00$230.77Medium52
Psychiatry$287,000.00$131.04Low46.547.1
Pulmonary Med$353,000.00$119.77Medium61.4
Radiation Oncology (Assistant Prof. Median)$393,734.00$158.36Low51.8
Rheumatology$289,000.00$112.3353.6
Urology$461,000.00$172.49High58.146
Total Average$381,233.35$147.4453.9

And the estimated physician salary per hour by specialty (cardiology highlighted in red):

Cardiologist Hourly Salary

Cardiologists make $177 an hour on average

Note: when data were unavailable for weeks worked per year, 48 weeks was used as an estimate to calculate the estimated hourly salary.

Does Getting AOA (Med School Honors) Help in Becoming a Cardiologist?

Medical school is one of the most challenging aspects of becoming a doctor. Many medical schools have established Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) branches to recognize top students’ hard work and dedication.

Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) is the medical school honors society for students who excel in their studies and demonstrate an exemplary commitment to professionalism and leadership. Each medical school may elect up to 20% of their graduating class to be inducted into AOA.

Induction into AOA is a prestigious honor that carries with it a variety of benefits. AOA members may be eligible for special scholarships and fellowships and can often receive priority consideration for residency positions.

The AOA advantage is particularly notable for the most competitive fields and/or residency programs. The 2022 Match data showed that the match rate for US medical school seniors with AOA membership was 2% greater than that of US seniors without AOA membership in internal medicine. In other words, AOA membership provided a modest advantage to matching into an internal medicine residency.

AOA Membership Advantage for Internal Medicine 2022

AOA membership correlated with a 2% match rate advantage for Internal Medicine in the 2022 Match

See this article for more on AOA medical schools and the importance of class rank for matching.

Do You Need to Attend a Top School to Become a Cardiologist?

When pursuing a career in cardiology, attending a top medical school can make a difference in matching into your desired specialty. According to a survey of program directors, over half of those surveyed reported considering applicants’ med school reputation when considering whom to interview, giving it an importance score of 3.8 out of 5.

Moreover, graduating from a school in the top 40 for NIH funding is associated with a 1% increase in the likelihood of matching into internal medicine as a field. This is potentially because top medical schools have more resources and access to clinical experience, which can help prepare students for the rigors of the specialty.

That said, it is important to remember that the name of the school alone does not guarantee success in any field. While attending a top medical school may have advantages, it is ultimately up to the individual to make the most of the opportunities presented. And while there is an advantage to being from a more prestigious institution, one’s record at the school will matter much more, including things like USMLE scores, class rank, and letters of recommendation.

Top 40 med school Internal Medicine match 2022

Graduating from a medical school ranked in the top 40 by NIH funding correlated with a 1% match rate advantage for Internal Medicine in the 2022 Match

Does an MPH or MBA Help You Become a Cardiologist?

Medical training is long and arduous. Remarkably, many students consider completing other degrees before, after, or even while pursuing their medical studies. Degrees such as Master of Public Health (MPH) and Master of Business Administration (MBA) may seem attractive to potential internal medicine residents due to their additional qualifications. But do these additional degrees give applicants an edge in the residency application process?

The truth is that having an additional degree may not matter as much as one thinks. We crunched the numbers on the match rate for graduating students from MD schools for those with non-PhD other degrees vs. those that did not have a second degree. In internal medicine, the match rate was the same(0% advantage)  for those with degrees like an MPH or MBA. This implies that having a second degree that isn’t a Ph.D. doesn’t appear to help your chances of matching into internal medicine

Internal Medicine other degree MBA MPH advantage 2022

Having another degree like an MBA or MPH correlated with a 0% match rate disadvantage for Internal Medicine in the 2022 Match

It’s important to note that this study only looked at the overall match rates of medical students with another degree. The data doesn’t look at the type of degree, the school it was obtained from, and the quality of the applicant’s experience and credentials.

Having a second degree could open up some additional career opportunities. For instance, having an MPH or MBA may prove beneficial for those looking to go into healthcare administration or research.

Concluding Thoughts

Becoming a cardiologist is a challenging but rewarding career path. It is perfect for those who love physiology, being decisive, and working as part of a team in intense situations. With hard work, dedication, and a desire to help others, cardiologists can make a real difference in the world of healthcare.

Looking for an Internal Medicine Residency Advisor?

Looking for an internal medicine residency advisor? Want help writing your personal statement? Need effective strategies for interviewing? Do you have things on your application – e.g., low USMLE scores, failed USMLEs, no research, IMG status, or others – you need help overcoming?

Be sure to check out our Residency Advisor service.

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Want FREE Cardiology Flashcards?

Cardiology is key for impressive USMLE scores. Master cardiology from a Harvard-trained anesthesiologist who scored USMLE 270 with these 130+ high-yield flash cards. You’ll be begging for cardio questions - even if vitals make you queasy.

Subscribe