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Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology: Which Specialty is Right for You?

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by Yousmle Staff in Career

Cardiology vs. allergy/immunology is one of the debates among medical students interested in physiology. Both specialties allow you to explore the complex workings of the human body and use your skills to improve patient outcomes. However, they also have significant differences, such as the scope of practice, the work environment, and the training requirements.

How do you decide which one is right for you? In this article, we will provide helpful information and tips to help you make an intelligent decision on cardiology vs. allergy/immunology and find a fulfilling career that matches your interests and abilities. We will also help you evaluate practical factors such as job availability, salary, and training duration.

Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology: Salary and Job Security

Cardiology might be your specialty if you want to earn a lot of money and have a steady demand for your services. But be prepared for a competitive job market after fellowship, even if you graduate from a prestigious program. A Harvard-MGH fellow once told me, “I’ll consider myself lucky if I find a job in a city I recognize.”

Allergy/immunology, meanwhile, offers more job openings. You can easily find a hospital that needs an allergist, and the career outlook is positive, even if the salary is not as high as cardiology. But allergy/immunology also comes with some challenges, such as higher burnout and less job security, which we will discuss later.

According to recent data, cardiologists earn an average annual salary of $507,000, while allergists/immunologists have a lower average salary of $282,000. Of all medical specialties, only orthopedists and plastic surgeons have higher average annual salaries than cardiologists, with orthopedists earning $573,000 and plastic surgeons earning $619,000.

Estimated Physician Average Yearly Salary by Medical Specialty in the US

Cardiologists earn $507,000 per year on average, while allergy/immunology earn less with $282,000 annually

Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology: Competitiveness

Here we can assess the competitiveness of a specialty by looking at the unmatched rate – the % of people who apply and do not match into their preferred specialty.

To pursue a career in cardiology or allergy/immunology, you must first match into an internal medicine residency. Among US Seniors, the unmatched percentage for internal medicine residency was only 2%, making it less competitive than other residencies. However, this does not mean that allergy/immunology or cardiology are less competitive. After completing your internal medicine residency, you will still need to match into a fellowship, which is generally more competitive than matching into a residency. 

Cardiology vs. Gastroenterology

Below is the unmatched percentage among non-pediatric fellowships with >100 applicants. The unmatched percentage of US Seniors applying to the cardiovascular diseases fellowship was 16.6%, making it highly competitive compared to most fellowships with >100 applicants. In comparison, the unmatched percentage of US seniors applying to allergy/immunology was 13.7%, making it less competitive than the cardiovascular diseases fellowship.

Training Path: Fellowship vs. Residency

The training pathways for cardiology and allergy/immunology are quite similar. To become a cardiologist, you must complete a three-year residency in internal medicine, followed by a cardiology fellowship. Similarly, to become an allergist/immunologist, you must complete a two-year fellowship in allergy and immunology after completing an internal medicine residency.

An allergy/immunology fellowship is generally less competitive than a cardiology fellowship. Your USMLE scores, med school, and research are the main things for residency applications. Research is also a big thing for fellowship applications, and your residency program counts more, but your USMLE scores matter much less.

Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology: Work-Life Balance

Work-life balance is a crucial factor for many medical professionals. Allergists/immunologists often enjoy a better work-life balance due to the nature of their work. They usually have predetermined working hours, leading to more predictable schedules.

Cardiology, an often patient-centric specialty, requires building long-lasting patient relationships. While this can be rewarding, it also means carrying a patient panel and more administrative work.

That being said, cardiologists work an average of 56.2 hours/week, ranking third after general surgeons and intensivists who work 57.4 and 57.7 hours, respectively. Allergy/immunology ranked at the lower end of medical specialties, with an average of 44.1 weekly working hours.

Estimated Physician Weekly Working Hours by Medical Specialty in the US

Cardiologists work an average of 56.2 hours per week, while allergists/immunologists work fewer hours, at 44.1 per week.

Cardiologists require more documentation, such as referral letters and diagnostic tests, resulting in an estimated 16 hours of admin/paperwork per week. The estimated physician admin/paperwork hours were not provided for allergy/immunology, but you can see estimated paperwork hours for other specialties below.

Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology

Cardiologists work on admin/paperwork an average of 16 hours per week.

Training Duration and Subspecialties

The training duration is a key aspect to consider when choosing between cardiology vs. allergy/immunology. Cardiology has a minimum of six years of training, including three years of internal medicine residency. On the other hand, allergy/immunology requires a minimum five-year training period, including three years of internal medicine residency.

In addition, cardiologists often pursue more subspecialty training in fields like echocardiography or electrophysiology because of the scarce job opportunities. This can increase the length of your cardiology training.

Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology: Job Satisfaction and Burnout Rates

Job satisfaction plays a significant role in career fulfillment. According to various studies, cardiology tends to have higher job satisfaction rates than allergy/immunology. Many cardiologists express contentment with their career choice and would choose it again if given the chance. Additionally, cardiology has lower reported burnout rates than allergy/immunology.

According to recent data, cardiology ranked near the upper end of all medical specialties with 93% of cardiologists stating that they would choose the same specialty again, while allergy/immunology ranked near the middle with 78% of allergists/immunologists feeling the same way.

Job Satisfaction Rate By Medical Specialty in the US

Cardiologists reported a 93% job satisfaction rate, while allergists/immunologists reported lower satisfaction with 78%

That being said, the burnout rates for cardiology were 43%, near the lower end of all medical specialties. In contrast, allergy/immunology had a burnout rate of 49%, which ranked near the middle of all medical specialties.

Burnout Rate By Medical Specialty in the US

Cardiologists have a burnout rate of 43%, while allergists/immunologists have a slightly higher burnout rate of 49%.

Cardiology vs. Allergy and Immunology Comparison

To provide a visual overview, here’s a table comparing cardiology and allergy/immunology:

AspectCardiologyAllergy and Immunology
Average SalaryGenerally high income due to specialization, especially in interventional cardiologyLower than cardiology
Job SecurityHigh demand due to an aging population and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseasesHigh demand due to increasing rates of allergies and autoimmune disorders
Training PathTypically involves 3 years of internal medicine residency followed by a 3-year cardiology fellowshipTypically involves 3 years of internal medicine residency, and 2 years of allergy/immunology fellowship
LifestyleVaried; may involve on-call responsibilities, long working hours, and outpatient clinic dutiesRegular working hours.
Administrative PaperworkHigh documentation requirements such as notes, test orders, and referral lettersModerate documentation requirements, often focused on allergy testing and immunotherapy plans
Job SatisfactionGenerally high but can vary with the work environment and patient outcomesLower
Burnout RatesRelatively low Higher
PersonalityStrong analytical skills, attention to detail, ability to handle stress and pressureStrong analytical skills, empathy, and good communication skills to understand and address patients' concerns

Please note that this table serves as a general comparison. To determine the most suitable career for you, consider your personal and career priorities and goals.

Concluding Thoughts

Choosing the right specialty between cardiology vs. allergy/immunology depends heavily on your priorities. To determine this, try reverse engineering your ideal life and identify your top priority. A helpful exercise is to write down the top five things you want to achieve in your career and personal life. Knowing these priorities will make finding a career that aligns with them easier. Often, the biggest obstacle is not a lack of knowledge about different fields but a lack of self-awareness about our own preferences.

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Want FREE Cardiology Flashcards?

Cardiology is key for impressive USMLE scores. Master cardiology from a Harvard-trained anesthesiologist who scored USMLE 270 with these 130+ high-yield flash cards. You’ll be begging for cardio questions - even if vitals make you queasy.